By: Robert D. Hunt
We humans can rarely
invent any process that nature does not already use. Most of the
science we know today merely copies nature. Our thermodynamic laws
were formed by observation of nature. They are not proven, merely
not disproved. Within this section of our website you will be taught
a new science that mimics the earth's weather, by harnessing the dual
forces of gravity -- buoyancy and gravity acceleration. Harnessing
gravity may be more technically described as the science of harnessing
mass differentials. High density mass falls within a low density
lifting fluid, like rain falls from the sky, and low density mass
rises in a high density lifting fluid, like a bubble rises in water
or helium rises in air.
The science you are about
to learn disproves two well known precepts: (1) that gravity is a
conservative force that cannot provide useful power; and, (2) the
Carnot Efficiency that is the maximum efficiency that may be obtained
by any power cycle that only refers to heat energies and does not
take into account any other form of energy that may be created in
a power cycle, such as energy gained from harnessing mass differentials.
Both of these precepts are proven to be incorrect by the mathematics
of a new Hunt power cycle presented herein that harnesses the forces
of gravity and all scientists know that mathematics do no lie. Further,
it should be noted that gravity is available for our use in open cycle
as part of our environment on the Earth and the use of gravity does
not involve heat input, as in a conventional power cycle such as the
Rankine Cycle. Helium and hydrogen rise within the atmosphere without
the need of being heated because of their light weight alone. Hydrogen
is the only substance found in space as the molecules are so light
that they can rise through the atmosphere into space, irregardless
of its temperature so long as its not so low that the hydrogen is
liquefied, and without heat input.
Actually, marine mammals
have already demonstrated the use of gravity to provide power in their
ability to migrate for thousands of miles without taking in food by
sea gliding forward and downward, using gravity acceleration, then
alternating to gliding upward and forward, using the force of buoyancy,
to continuously move forward by the mere movement of a few muscles
to compress or expand air trapped within their lungs in order to make
a change from being heavier-than-water to being lighter-than-water,
expending almost no energy in the process. It has been estimated
that the kinetic energy of motion output from sea gliding of marine
mammals is on the order of two hundred times their caloric intake!
The energy for the marine
mammals to sea glide comes from harnessing gravity. If a thermodynamic
model of the migration of a marine animal is made, it would be deemed
impossible, using heat input from caloric intake as a measure of power
input as the energy input is only a mere fraction of the kinetic energy
of motion achieved as an energy output. Something therefore is wrong.
It isnt nature. It is the Carnot efficiency formula that is wrong.
Marine mammal migration is an observation of nature that flies in
the face of one of thermodynamics most important concepts, the Carnot
Efficiency, as the efficiency gained by marine mammals to travel via
harnessing mass differentials (the dual forces of gravity) is far
greater than 100% which is the greatest percentage allowable by the
Carnot efficiency. The observation of the migration of marine mammals
also proves that gravity is not a conservative force that is unable
to provide energy for our use.
Okay, we will eventually
get to the gravityplane, but it is important to understand how the
underlying science of the gravityplane works. Having been given the
preface above we will further demonstrate how gravity is used by nature
in forming our weather and how we can make a useful power cycle that
mimics how our weather works that is presented next.
Our Weather Works Using Gravity
that heat energy from the sun vaporizes liquid water into water vapor
that condenses into liquid water again high in the sky. The water
falls to land as rain or snow that melts to flow to the sea at lower
elevation, which creates mighty rivers and lakes capable of powering
hydroelectric power plants. The latent heat given off by condensation
of the water vapor into water heats up the surrounding air and this
warm air rises within the body of colder air to create wind currents.
This process drives our weather; however, the weather could not be
created without help from gravity.
If you examine
the weather process more closely, you will realize that gravity plays
a huge role in our weather cycle. Yes, the process begins by the
use of a small heat input to vaporize the water into water vapor,
but it could not occur without help from the dual forces of gravity.
its presence on Earth as two forces, buoyancy and gravity acceleration.
It is buoyancy that allows the water vapor to lift up high into the
sky in the first place. Buoyancy is caused by the greater pull of
the Earth's gravity on bodies of higher mass than on bodies of lower
mass known as the Archimedes Principal. Bodies of lower mass rise
within a higher mass surrounding fluid and bodies of higher mass fall
within a lower mass surrounding fluid. The water vapor is lighter-than-air,
which means that it has less mass per cubic foot than air does. At
high altitude a temperature difference causes the water vapor to change
phase to liquid water. The water has more mass per cubic foot than
air does; therefore, the liquid falls to the ground. The process
is driven by both temperature differentials and mass differentials.
Our weather is the result of the combination of energy created by
temperature differentials and mass differentials working together.
The process by which gravity is harnessed it to create mass differentials
by forming mass having potential energy because of the location in
which the mass is formed.
The location at which the liquid water
is created by the phase change creates a potential energy of height
that is immediately converted into kinetic energy of motion as the
water falls from the sky. This process also causes rain to fall on
high elevation land that forms into flowing bodies of water. The flowing
bodies of water may be harnessed for power via run-of-the-river turbines
or power may be generated by hydro-damns that allow the flowing water
to form a tall column of water that produces hydrostatic pressure
that can drive a hydro-turbine to drive an electrical generator.
Hunt Power Cycle That Mimics Weather
States and International Patents Filed by Robert D. Hunt
Our weather cycle is mimicked by the Hunt potential
energy power cycle disclosed below in which temperature differentials,
mass differentials, and hydrostatic pressure work together to form
a new power cycle that creates energy in the same manner as the weather
creates power by using the difference in the temperature from a low
altitude to a high altitude and using the dual forces of gravity –
buoyancy and gravity acceleration -- in an alternating cycle, along
with hydrostatic pressure.
Robert Hunt applied for U.S. Patent protection on
this power cycle that mimics nature nearly a year ago after he began
to discover the secrets of how to harness gravity by studying how
nature uses the dual forces of gravity – buoyancy and gravity
acceleration – to create our weather and the underlying principals
from this patent allowed him to invent the gravityplane and an innovative
new sea glider, which are powered by the dual forces of gravity that
are used in an alternating cycle.
There is a natural temperature differential that
occurs between lower altitudes and higher altitudes. This temperature
differential with the help of gravity can supply all the power we
will ever need. The heat energy to drive Hunt’s new power cycle
exists in the thermal energy within the atmosphere at lower altitude
that surrounds us and is available for our use 24/7. The energy is
principally produced by solar radiation that is retained as thermal
energy in the air that can be harnessed. With this new technology
to harness gravity using power from solar heat (direct solar heat
and thermal energy stored in the atmosphere) in the same manner that
our weather does, there is no need to any longer burn fossil fuels.
The new power cycle is formed by a pipe that creates a closed loop
that goes from the ground or even underground (to provide access to
geothermal heat) to high into the sky and a temperature differential
occurs between the bottom of the loop and top of the loop. In a single
pressure closed system vaporization and condensation can occur with
as little as five degrees F. difference; just as it does in heat pipe
technology that is used to efficiently transfer heat from one location
to the other. The temperature drops by approximately 5 deg. F. every
thousand feet of altitude gained; therefore, more than adequate temperature
differential may be readily attained by a system that could be built
onto the side of a mountain, into the proposed new 1,700 foot tall
World Trade Center Building to supply all of its power needs, or added
to a pumped hydro-electric plant to eliminate the need for pumping
water back to the reservoir.
A low-boiling-point-liquid or water at a reduced
pressure is vaporized at the bottom of the loop using heat (thermal
energy) from the ambient temperature air, geothermal heat, waste heat,
or any other readily available low temperature heat source. The vapor
rises to a condenser at height at the top of the loop via an insulated
pipe that forms the left side of the loop. Two gases are present on
the left side of the pipe. One is denser than the other gas and is
used as a lifting fluid. The lifting fluid is non-condensable in the
temperature range of the power cycle and will always remain as a gas.
The second gas, which is much lighter than the lifting fluid, is the
vapor to be lifted to height by the lifting fluid as it rises within
the lifting fluid.
The two gases rise in a column and at the top of the column they flow
through a gas turbine connected to a generator to produce electrical
power from the kinetic energy of the two vapors. This portion of the
cycle produces power and is a conventional Rankine Cycle that vaporizes
a gas and then the gas flows through a gas turbine to generate power.
This part of the process is like the weather that provides winds that
may produce power via wind turbines. However, the Hunt Cycle disclosed
herein provides an additional second power output by creating potential
energy via a phase change of the vapor into a liquid that uses mass
differentials to form hydrostatic pressure to power a hydro turbine
to produce the additional power as is described below. This second
process is also used by our weather to provide the energy to power
hydro-electric power plants.
The low density vapor is readily condensable to
the liquid state with a small temperature change. The condenser uses
the higher altitude cooler ambient temperature air for heat rejection
to accomplish condensation of the vapor into a liquid. The liquid
formed by the condenser fills a tube with high mass liquid that is
formed by the right side of the loop that extends from the condenser
to the ground and hydrostatic pressure is applied to a hydro-turbine
at the bottom of the tube. This process adds power to the cycle by
creating power from mass differentials as the column of high mass
water is formed within the low mass atmosphere.
A steady state flow is achieved as the vaporization
rate, condensation rate, and liquid flow rate through the turbine
are equal, thus the tube remains full all of the time and the liquid
applies a hydrostatic pressure to drive the hydro-turbine to generate
power. The output power of this potential energy power cycle is determined
by the flow rate and head pressure. The head pressure can be increased
merely by making the loop taller.
The vapor will rise to any desired height to reach
the condenser so long as it is not allowed to cool and condense in
the pipe along the way to the condenser. Therefore, the output power
will continue to increase with the height of the system.
The height of the system determines the output power
that readily changes by height when harnessing gravity and the input
power is relatively fixed. Thus the nature of harnessing gravity is
the process of forming the potential energy of height that is immediately
converted to kinetic energy of motion or converted to hydrostatic
pressure as used in Hunt’s power cycle and thus there is a direct
correlation to height and energy output and not a direct correlation
to input energy and output energy as thermodynamic power cycles that
employ the use of heat alone, such as the Rankine Cycle. In the Rankine
cycle a liquid is vaporized and the vapor powers a turbine. The output
is fixed by the volume and pressure of the gas formed. In Hunt’s
new power cycle, the output increases with the potential energy formed
by the height of the liquid filled tube that produces hydrostatic
pressure that increases with height. Thus a second power input is
added to the cycle. The two energy outputs are the heat driven vapor
power output and the mass differential power output of the hydrostatic
pressure formed by the liquid filled column applying hydrostatic pressure
to power the hydro-turbine that increases with height.
Innovative new power cycles, such as the Hunt Cycle
presented herein, can literally change the world. The units can be
placed anywhere and the hydro-turbines can generate electricity, which
then can be used to produce pollution free hydrogen via electrolysis
and the hydrogen can run fuel cells to power everything that is not
connected to the grid, such as powering modes of transportation and
providing power in remote sites, etc. The units can be built into
the ground, instead of high in the sky, to take advantage of geothermal
heat, which is especially effective in cold regions like the Artic
Circle where the temperature differential from the ground to the ambient
temperature air is substantial.
Hunt Aviation is interested in speaking with power
companies or other parties interested in building prototype units
of Hunt’s new power cycle that Mimics our Weather disclosed
herein. If you would like to receive a full engineering report on
the Hunt Power Cycle, please request it under the Request for More
Information Form on this website.
The Gravityplane In Air Using A Sea Glider In Water
LINK TO THE NEW SEA GLIDER PATENT APPLICATION
There is a lot that can be learned by creating a scale
model of the gravityplane as a sea glider. From existing sea glider
technology, we have already learned that gliding is possible while
rising upward. What works in water also works in air. Therefore,
if a sea glider can glide upward, so can the gravityplane. Another
compelling reason the model the gravityplane in water is cost. A
gravityplane scale model sea glider may cost less than $200,000 and
a working gravityplane may cost millions of dollars.
must be very large in order to be lifted by a lighter-than-air lifting
gas such as helium that provides a very low amount of lift, thus a
small gravityplane can never be built and models of the craft will
always be very large. However, a scale model of the gravityplane
can be built as a sea glider that is less than 30 foot long that will
be capable of holding four passengers. The sea glider can work in
water at this small size, because water has a lifting capacity 821
times greater than the lifting capacity of air (62 pounds per cubic
foot lifting capacity for water and .0755 pounds per cubic foot lifting
capacity for air).
Air is a dilute
lifting fluid that only lifts a small fraction as much as does water,
however, everything that works in air works equally as well in water
which is merely a more dense lifting fluid or visa versa. Therefore,
we can simulate the fluid dynamics that will apply to the gravityplane
in air with the scale model sea glider in water. Like the gravityplane,
the scale model sea glider will be able to harness gravity and will
be able to continuously glide both upward and downward through the
water without the use of fossil fuels or the need for battery power.
difference in Hunt Aviation’s patent pending technology is that
conventional sea gliders require battery power in order to operate
and our fuel-less sea glider harnesses power from the kinetic energy
of motion of the sea glider through the water via an underwater hydro-turbine
or a surface wind turbine, just as the gravityplane harnesses power
from the kinetic energy motion of the air using its wind turbines
and kinetic energy of motion of the water via hydro-turbines.
The wind turbine
or hydro-tubine is formed by attaching a rotating horizontal disk
to a vertical axis shaft that is mounted to a frame on bearings, which
allows the disk and shaft to rotate. Shutters are made into the disk
that can open perpendicular to the horizontal disk or can close to
a position parallel to and even to the surface of the disk. On one
side of the turbine, two shutters open with one opening upward and
one opening downward to form a " V" shape in order to catch
the wind or water and then move backward with the wind or water due
to the force applied on the shutters that rotates the disk and vertical
shaft. On the opposite side of the wind turbine the shutters close
down into the disk in order to go into the wind or water with minimal
drag - about the same drag as a discus thrown through the air or an
aileron of an airplane. In comparison a conventional horizontal axis
wind turbine or hydro-propeller creates drag across the entire area
of the circumference of its vertical blades that are directed into
the flow of the wind or water.
glider models have a velocity of only .5 knots, which is too slow
to generate much power using a hydro-turbine due the small amount
of motion though the water. Hunt's sea glider will dive and submerge
much more forcefully and will therefore be able to generate and store
a lot of power and will; therefore, travel from point-to-point a lot
faster with an unlimited range.
that will be proven in water by the sea glider scale model of the
gravityplane will help to engineer the aircraft. Conventional sea
gliders glide in both the upward and downward direction in water and
this proves that the gravityplane can also glide in both the upward
and downward directions through air.
This also means that the gravityplane
will be able to glide and generate power while climbing to altitude
using aerostatic lift. The sea glider scale model will prove that
flight in air and underwater transport can be accomplished by the
use of gravity power to produce and store power via harnessing the
kinetic energy of motion with a wind turbine or hydro-turbine.
sea glider and gravityplane do not have to solely depend on the power
of gravity (which is the science of harnessing mass differentials
to cause buoyancy and gravity acceleration in an alternating cycle
of going from heavier-than-water or air to being lighter-than-water
or air) for operation as the craft will also innovatively harness
other environmental power sources, such as solar power, wind power,
water current and wave power, pressure differentials, temperature
differentials, current differentials within wind or water, etc. that
are available energy sources provided by nature.
during this year to prove the new hybrid craft’s ability to
work in either the air or water, Hunt Aviation plans to lift the sea
glider model of the gravityplane to high altitude using helium balloons
and release it to accomplish fuelless flight. Robert Hunt, as a private
pilot and sailplane enthusiast, plans to fly the glider. Power will
be produced and stored in the form of compressed air by the wind turbine
as the craft glides downward toward the earth. The compressed air
will run a generator to generate electrical power to demonstrate that
power was actually stored as hundreds of miles of distance was quickly
traveled – proving the underlying concept of fuel-less flight
I will fly a substantial distance and then will bring back to earth
stored energy without burning one drop of fuel whatsoever.
Can Be Sustained Using The Forces Of Gravity
Many people do not realize that buoyancy
is a property of gravity. Gravity exerts a greater pull on more
dense materials than on less dense materials, which causes buoyancy.
A bubble rises in water and helium rises in air because they are less
dense than the surrounding lifting fluid.
Gravity acceleration, which is commonly
thought of simply as the downward gravitational pull of the earth,
is the reason a glider is able to fly (See a more detailed explanation
of gliding under the heading A Glider Flies via Gravity Acceleration).
When you combine the two forces of gravity (buoyancy that is an upward
pull and gravity acceleration that is a downward pull) into a new
hybrid aircraft, it can rise into the sky via aerostatic lift, using
a lifting gas such as helium or by the lifting force of a vacuum,
and then glide downward like a glider using the gravitation pull of
the earth. Before being able to glide, however, the aircraft
must first change from being lighter-than-air to being heavier-than-air.
This weight change may be accomplished by bringing compressed air
from the surrounding atmosphere into the aircraft to make the aircraft
heavier to lose lift.
The Compression of atmospheric air into
the aircraft requires an energy input. The required energy may
be generated by a wind turbine from the high velocity wind created
while gliding downward and energy may be stored in the form of compressed
air that is stored in high pressure storage cylinders. The stored
energy may be used later to change the weight of the aircraft by powering
pneumatic motor driven compressors to compress air that is taken from
the surrounding environment into the aircraft to add mass to the aircraft.
Importantly, however, the weight of the stored compressed air must
be conserved aboard the aircraft after it has been expanded in order
to obtain power to drive the pneumatic motors (See a detailed description
of how this process is accomplished under the heading Ballast Process).
During descent, the compressed air also
beneficially adds weight to the aircraft. The aircraft glides
faster as it becomes heavier; however, the glide slope remains the
same because increased velocity causes the air to flow faster over
the wings, which provides more aerodynamic lift to offset the additional
The amount of energy produced by the
wind turbine while gliding down is directly related to the height
(potential energy) at which the glide begins, with the higher the
altitude of the starting point the greater the length of time that
the aircraft glides downward and produces power. A portion may
be stored for later use. Gravity is used to lift the aircraft
via buoyancy and also is used to generate power via the wind turbine
as it glides downward, as well as provide forward momentum while gliding.
Height represents potential energy and
height provides the power needed for the new hybrid aircraft to glide
and to produce and store power. The higher the aircraft
is the more potential energy it has that can be converted to kinetic
energy of motion, and; therefore, the greater distance it can glide
and the more power it can generate and store.
In case you are thinking -- perpetual
motion device. Here is the explanation of why that thought is an incorrect
assumption. Any qualified scientist knows that the use of heat as
a power source in a closed thermodynamic cycle results in entropy
– the loss of a portion of the heat energy due to friction,
heat conduction, etc. The result is that each time a cycle is completed
there is less energy returned as an output than went into the process;
therefore, perpetual motion is correctly deemed to be impossible.
A scientist also knows that the world
in which we live is not a closed system. There are forces provided
by our natural environment, such as sunlight that produces heat energy
and can produce electricity via photovoltaic modules, wind that may
be harnessed by a wind turbine to produce mechanical drive that can
be used to generate electrical power, used to compress air, or used
to drive a hydraulic pump, and there is geothermal heat energy can
produce electrical power, and yes the forces of gravity that may be
used to our benefit. Just because scientists in the past failed to
create practical devices that employ gravity does not mean that gravity
cannot be used. Hunt has discovered how to harness gravity by the
combined use of gravity’s dual properties – buoyancy to
create an upward motion and gravity acceleration to create a downward
motion – in an alternating cycle. However, other environmental
energy sources will be harnessed by the gravityplane and used in conjunction
with the dual properties of gravity, such as solar power, thermoelectric
power generation, temperature differentials, current differentials,
and pressure differentials, etc.
Hunt’s invention is an open system
using these two well known forces of gravity provided by our natural
environment. The gravity technology is equivalent to harnessing the
power of the wind or harnessing the power of sunlight that are provided
by nature, only in this case the power of nature that is being harnessed
is the power of gravity, which is also responsible for buoyancy due
to the greater gravitation pull of the earth on the surrounding air
than on the less dense lifting gas or a vacuum.
One force of gravity can take you up
and the other can take you down. Understanding the potential
of this dual relationship and creating a cycle out of the up and down
motion is the heart of Hunt's new gravity powered technology, that
will make our world a better place to live and a cleaner environment
for our children and their children.
The new hybrid gravity-powered aircraft
is formed by merging the capabilities of the following devices into
a single new aircraft apparatus: (1) an aircraft capable of
aerostatic (lighter-than-air) lift to gain altitude; and, (2) a glider
aircraft capable of aerodynamic lift, having a high glide ratio to
accomplish long range gliding; and, (3) a wind turbine that is capable
of harnessing the force of wind to generate power and to store power
as the aircraft glides downward.
Glider Flies Via Gravity Acceleration
A conventional glider is towed to fairly high altitude by an airplane
or is launched by a tow wench. Potential energy is created as
the glider gains altitude. As the glider dives toward the earth,
the aircraft trades the potential energy difference from a higher
altitude to a lower altitude to produce kinetic energy. The glider
picks up speed as it falls due to gravity acceleration, which causes
high velocity wind to pass over the wings of the glider to create
aerodynamic lift. Gliders can climb upward while diving downward
by catching rising air currents known as thermals in which the air
is rising faster than the glider dives downward to achieve an overall
upward rise. A glider is capable of gliding much further than
an airplane because it has greater aerodynamic lift due to long narrow,
high aspect ratio wings. A glider is able to fly because it
is able to harnesses a force of gravity -- gravity acceleration.
Principal Of Buoyancy In Air
Lighter-than-air (aerostatic) lift may be explained by
the principal of buoyancy, also known as the Archimedes Principal
which states: an object immersed in a fluid experiences a buoyant
force that is equal in magnitude to the force of gravity on the displaced
fluid. Stated differently, the lifting capability is equal to
the weight of the surrounding fluid mass that it displaces.
Displacing a cubic foot of air creates a lifting capacity equal to
the weight of a cubic foot of air, which is .0755 pounds per cubic
The lifting capability of helium in air
is .062828 pounds per cubic foot at sea level. Hydrogen has
a greater lifting capability in air than helium and can lift .0724
pounds per cubic foot at sea level. However, the lifting capability
of a vacuum (the absence of any gas molecules at all) beats them both
at .0755 pounds per cubic foot at sea level, which is equal to the
weight of a cubic foot of air. The reason the lifting capacity
of hydrogen or helium is less than the lifting capacity of a vacuum
is that the weight of the helium or hydrogen must be subtracted from
the lifting capacity in order to obtain a net lifting capacity.
Helium is heavier than hydrogen and the lighter hydrogen, therefore,
has a greater lifting capacity than does helium.
A conventional aerostatic airship creates
lift by the use of gases that are lighter-than-air, such as helium,
or use hot air which is less dense than cold air for lift. The
lift capacity of hot air is much less than the lift capacity of a
lifting gas. Hydrogen generally is not used as a lifting gas
any longer because it is explosive and combustible. Lighter-than-air
airships are now being designed to attain altitudes of over 100,000
feet and may be built very large to carry heavy loads of passengers
and cargo approaching 1,000 tons. By comparison, a U. S. military
C-17 heavy lifter only carries near 70 tons.
A vacuum contained within an enclosure
creates aerostatic lift as it displaces the surrounding air and creates
buoyancy. Vacuum-lift may alternatively be used instead of a
lifting gas by Hunt's new hybrid aircraft to provide lift. The
aircraft is formed by connecting a series of cells that are strong
enough to hold a vacuum and light enough to be lifted by the vacuum
formed within the cells. Helium only lifts eighty percent (80%)
as much as a vacuum lifts. Lifting gases stop lifting at very
high altitudes when the density of the surrounding air is equal to
the density of the lifting gas, known as pressure height.
However, a vacuum can lift as long as there is any surrounding air
to act as a lifting fluid, which would allow a vacuum lifted aircraft
to go to a higher altitude and it can become heavier than air merely
by allowing a portion of the vacuum to be replaced with surrounding
air by opening an air passage to the cells. The vacuum would
then be regenerated using wind turbine power during the descent after
heavy compressed air is brought into the aircraft to increase its
weight so that it remains heavier-than-air.
As a safety feature, the new hybrid aircraft
will use a dual-aerostatic-lift system that will include the use of
vacuum-lift and the use of a lifting gas. The lifting gas serves
as a backup system in the event of failure of the vacuum-lift.
The vacuum is contained within rigid cells that make up the aircraft
and the lifting gas is expanded into collapsible gas bags within the
cells in the event of rupture of the walls of the cell. During
normal operation of the aircraft, the gas bags remain collapsed and
lift is provided by the vacuum held within the cells.
Alternately, if a pure vacuum cannot
be achieved due to material constraints, a partial vacuum may be formed
to allow a lifting gas to achieve more lift by being allowed to expand
to extremely low pressure, such as less than five pounds per square
inch of pressure. The initial aircraft will probably use a partial
vacuum on the inside of the cells within the aircraft that will form
low pressure on the outside of the gas bags that hold expanded helium
lifting gas within the gas bags at extremely low pressure. The
effect is equal to the gas bags being at high altitude while they
are at low altitude and more lift is achieved at low altitude by the
process. As altitude is increased, the pressure differential
decreases, instead of increases as it does in a conventional airship,
as the atmospheric pressure drops.
Effect Of Gravity As A Relationship Between Densities Of Bodies Of
The greater the density of a body of mass, the greater
the gravitational pull of the earth on that body of mass. Gravity
causes high density mass to sink within lower density mass, like a
piece of high density steel sinks in lower density water or like higher
density water droplets fall downward toward the earth in lower density
air, as each is heavier (higher density) than their respective surrounding
body of mass.
The interesting thing about this process
is that the gravitational force can cause motion in both the upward
and downward directions. Place a helium balloon in the air and
the balloon rises because it contains a lower density gas (helium)
than the density of the air surrounding the balloon. Likewise,
an air bubble in water has a lower density than the density of the
surrounding water, which causes the bubble to be lifted upward by
the surrounding lifting fluid - water.
Hunt Aviation’s new aircraft has
the capability to alter its density (mass as a unit of weight per
cubic area) in relationship to the mass of the surrounding air by
the use of collapsible gas bags that are inside of the aircraft into
which low pressure, low density helium is expanded, which causes the
overall density of the aircraft to be lighter-than-air, or by forming
a vacuum within the cells to create vacuum lift to become lighter-than-air.
To make the overall density of the airship
heavier-than-air to become a glider, compressed air contained in high
pressure cylinders is used as a power source to operate pneumatic
motors that drive air compressors to bring in compressed air from
the surrounding atmosphere to add weight to the aircraft. The
new incoming compressed air from the atmosphere and the expanded compressed
air from the cylinders are allowed to enter into the area between
the inside of the cells of the aircraft and the outside of the gas
bags holding the low pressure helium. The helium is compressed
due to the greater pressure of the compressed air outside of the gas
bags and as the helium is compressed its volume decreases until it
occupies far less area in which the helium occupied while expanded
in the gas bags. High weight compressed air replaces the space
in which the expanded low density helium within the gas bags had previously
occupied. The total mass of helium remains constant, but the
volume in which the mass is housed is dramatically reduced as a result
of compression of the helium and in the process additional weight
is added to the aircraft in the form of compressed air in order to
lose lift. In the event a pure vacuum is used within the cells
for lift, air from the atmosphere may be allowed to enter the cells
in order to release the vacuum and to add mass to aircraft to lose
Energy Gained By Altitude Determines The Range, Duration Of Flight
And The Amount Of Stored Power That May Be Generated By The Aircraft
The height that is attained determines the amount of
potential energy available that may be converted to kinetic energy
as the hybrid aircraft glides downward. As the aircraft rises
it gains potential energy. The higher the altitude gained by
the aircraft; the greater the amount of potential energy that is created
that may be converted to kinetic energy of motion as the aircraft
glides downward from high elevation. The amount of energy that
may be generated by the wind turbine via gravity acceleration is in
direct relationship to the height (amount of potential energy attained).
The higher the aircraft is before it starts gliding the longer the
duration of time and the further distance it will glide downward producing
power. The aircraft trades the potential energy difference from
a higher altitude to a lower altitude to produce kinetic energy as
it glides downward.
For example, let's assume that the glide begins at
1,000 feet and the aircraft begins to pick up speed by gravity acceleration
(9.8 meters per second, the speed of gravity acceleration) and much
of the low altitude is traded for velocity to reach glide speed and
as a result the glider doesnt go very far. The amount of energy
gained via converting the potential energy of 1,000 feet of height
to kinetic energy of motion by the aircraft is too small to be very
useful and the wind turbine of the aircraft would not have generated
nearly enough energy to compress the required amount of air into the
aircraft to lose lift on the next flight.
Now let’s assume that the aircraft
takes a second flight and starts its glide from an altitude of 52,800
feet (10 miles high). It accelerates to the full glide speed via gravity
acceleration within the first thousand feet then glides downward at
constant speed for over two hours at 200 miles per hour with a 40
to 1 glide slope or 40 miles forward to 1 mile down (10 miles down
times 40 miles forward = 400 miles traveled divided by 200 miles per
hour = 2 hours of flight). During the glide the aircraft stores compressed
air produced by the wind turbine as stored energy and within less
than thirty minutes from the time the glide began, it had stored enough
energy in the form of compressed air to power a pneumatic motor to
drive an air compressor to compress the required amount of air into
the aircraft to lose lift on the next climb-out to high elevation.
Compressed air can be used for propulsion, electrical power generation,
or used to perform any other form of mechanical work.
From this illustration comparing two
different altitudes at which the glide starts, it can readily be seen
that the amount of potential energy gained that may be converted to
kinetic energy of motion is in direct relationship to the height attained.
The energy input to compress air into the aircraft to lose lift is
relatively constant, but the energy output via harnessing gravity
by creating potential energy that is immediately converted to kinetic
energy of motion changes dramatically by the altitude gained before
the glide begins.
If sufficient altitude is not gained
before the glide begins, then there is not enough energy produced
and stored as compressed air to perform compression of air into the
aircraft to lose lift during the next flight to high altitude and
the craft must land and replenish its supply of compressed air, which
is its fuel source, before starting another flight.
By starting the glide from great elevation
and employing aerodynamic designs having high glides slopes, the duration
of power generation may be on the order of many hours at a time before
the requirement to again alter its mass in relationship to the surrounding
air occurs. Thus, power produced by the wind turbine and stored
during these long glides will be available to meet the energy needs
of the aircraft for air compression and for other energy requirements.
The heavier the aircraft; the faster
it is capable of gliding downward as the gravitational pull is greater.
The aircraft can become much heavier by storing large quantities of
highly compressed, heavy air in order to glide faster. Thus two beneficial
purposes are served by the compression and storage of air by the wind
turbine: (1) energy is stored for later use; and, (2) the aircraft
becomes heavier and glides downward faster. The aircraft would normally
land with a significant load of compressed air – its fuel for
later use, including thrust for vertical take-off.
Importance Of The Use Of Wind Turbines On The New Aircraft
The new aircraft is able to continue to fly for extended
periods of time because of the use of wind turbines. Critical
processes that must be accomplished to create the gravity powered
flight cycle, such as compression of air into the aircraft to lose
lift, need energy input. Wind turbines produce and store energy
in the form of compressed air as the aircraft glides downward via
gravity acceleration. The stored energy is later used by the
aircraft after it rises to substantial height and again needs energy
to compress new air into the aircraft to lose lift. The aircraft
lands with a cargo of compressed air made possible by the use of wind
turbines to produce and store compressed air, which serves as the
source of energy that is used for air compression to increase the
weight of the aircraft to lose lift during the next flight.
The wind turbines can generate power
while the aircraft is on the ground, tethered above the ground, or
floating on water so long as the wind blows with sufficient velocity
and provided the wind turbines are faced into the wind. This allows
the supply of compressed air to be fully charged after use for short
flights that do not produce sufficient compressed air to resume high
altitude flight and provides compressed air produced by the wind turbines
to drive pneumatic motors to run generators to produce electrical
power while on the ground or floating in water.
Vertical Axis Wind Turbine
Robert Hunt is the inventor of a patent pending vertical
axis wind turbine that is ideally suited for use by the new hybrid
gravity powered aircraft. The wind turbine uses drag as the operating
force. It alternates from an extremely high drag configuration to
an extremely low drag configuration to more efficiently harness the
power of the wind. This is accomplished by shutters that close to
form a large sail area when pushed by the wind to create high drag
to harness the power of the wind and then open to a very narrow surface
area to cause low drag when rotating into the wind.
TO VERTICAL AXIS WIND TURBINE PAGE WITH VIDEO OF EARLY PROTOTYPE WIND
Design Features Of The Craft
The wings of the craft are capable of being rotated along
a ninety degree arc. This allows the sweep of the wings to be
altered as needed. The high aspect ratio wings are fully extended
for take-off and landing and for slow speed gliding to achieve high
lift. The wings may be swept back to accommodate high speed
flight, especially during high velocity dives from high altitude.
The ship is equipped with three reversible
turbines that can serve either as wind turbines to generate energy
during descent or be used as propulsion turbines to power the ship.
The smaller turbines mounted on each side of the craft may also be
used to provide steering assistance. The turbines are connected to
pneumatic motors / compressors. As wind rotates the turbine’s
blades that are connected to a compressor by a common shaft, the turbine
drives the compressor and atmospheric air is taken into the compressor
to be compressed and may be stored for later use. When the stored
high pressure compressed air is run back through the compressor to
rotate the compressor, the compressor becomes a pneumatic motor that
drives rotation of the turbine to produce jet propulsion. The turbine
can produce and store power generated from the kinetic energy of motion
of wind or in the reverse mode of operation use the power produced
by the wind to provide jet propulsion.
The aircraft is designed to carry heavy
loads of passengers and cargo without combustion of hydrocarbons as
fuel, can stop and hover in place weightless at any time, and can
takeoff and land vertically, using compressed air as its fuel that
it produces itself during flight via gravity acceleration.
The aircraft can land on any open, relatively
level spot of land and does not necessarily need an airport.
Any sizable body of water provides an excellent landing site and it
can also be used as a boat after landing on water. The pontoons
of the craft are filled with helium to provide lift in air, but likewise
they can provide lift within water.
To Build The New Hybrid Aircraft
Start by using advanced new strong, lightweight
materials that are now available, such as carbon fiber or Kevlar bonded
with epoxy resin to construct a rigid frame and outer skin.
Additionally, lightweight non-porous Mylar will be used to form the
balloon type gas-bags to hold the helium gases, which can escape more
porous materials. Engineering performed by material science
engineers for Hunt Aviation indicates that a rigid outer shell with
gas bags inside the shell using these new ultra-lightweight materials
may readily be built that will be capable of being lighter-than-air
when the gas bags are filled with helium.
A single layer of Kevlar covering an
area of a square yard that is bonded with epoxy resin may weigh as
little as three ounces. The use of multiple layers of
composite material and adding the weight of a carbon fiber framework
is estimated to create a total weight of less than 16 ounces (one
pound) per square yard of surface area to build a lightweight rigid
The larger the cubic area that is enclosed
the less the number of square feet of surface area that there is in
ratio to the number of cubic feet of lifting-gas capacity within the
enclosure. A cubic enclosure that has six identical sides
that are 6 feet by 6 feet, has an internal area of 216 cubic feet
and has 216 feet of surface area or a 1 to 1 ratio of surface area
to cubic feet of lifting gas area. If the size of the cubic
enclosure is increased to10 feet by 10 feet per side, there are 1,000
cubic feet inside the cube and the sides of the cube have 600 square
feet of surface area, increasing the ratio to 1.6. The greater
the size of the cube the better the ratio of lifting gas area to square
feet of surface area.
This ratio helps to determines at what
size the craft can become lighter-than-air when filled with helium.
If the total weight to be lifted is 16 ounces per square yard of surface
area, then we must have a ratio that will provide sufficient lift.
The lifting capability of helium in air is .062828 pounds per cubic
foot at sea level. A ratio of two means that there are two cubic
feet of lifting gas area for each square foot of surface area or .1256
pounds of lift per square foot of surface area or 1.13 pounds per
square yard, which is over 18 ounces of lift capacity per square yard
of surface material, which is greater than the 16 ounces of lift needed
to make the aircraft lighter-than-air.
The size of a cube needed to get a ratio
of 2 is only 12 feet by 12 feet sides. A cube having 18 feet
sides provides a ratio of 3 and a cube having 30 feet sides has a
ratio of 5. It is easy to see that a reasonably sized rigid
enclosure may be constructed that can become lighter-than-air to gain
altitude using helium as the lifting gases.
To build an aircraft that is made lighter-than-air
by use of a vacuum that provides greater lift than a lifting gas will
require the use of composite materials that are strong enough to hold
the negative pressure of a vacuum within the sealed cells and are
light enough to be lifted by the lifting effect of the vacuum therein
formed. A vacuum would be more advantageous than the use of
a lifting gas because hydrogen and helium consist of small molecules
that are difficult to retain within a closed space, which is why helium
balloons lose their inflation after a few days. Hydrogen gas
is both flammable and explosive, making it a dangerous substance to
use. Helium, while it is inert, is rare and costly, and it is
expensive to constantly replace lost helium due to the inability to
adequately retain its tiny molecules.
The aircraft is made up of a cellular
matrix. The wings and fuselage are composed of a series of rigid
cells; within each cell is a flexible gas bag capable of holding helium
to provide lift and each cell is capable of holding a vacuum or partial
vacuum. Compressed air can be individually supplied to each
cell on the outside of the gas bag to add weight when it is desirable
to become heavier-than-air. The lifting capacity of the aircraft
must be sufficient to carry an adequate supply of compressed air within
high pressure storage containers during its climb to high elevation
in order to compress a portion of the helium within the cells to lose
Of The Wind
A wind turbine is capable of generating power from the
kinetic energy of motion of the wind. The power of wind is cubed.
If the velocity of the wind increases from ten feet per second to
twenty feet per second, the kinetic energy in the wind is not doubled,
but rather it is eight times greater (2 X 2 X 2 = 8). And if
the velocity is then increased to forty feet per second the power
of the wind is not four times the original ten feet per second but
is sixty-four times greater (8 X 8 = 64). From this illustration
you can see why hurricane and tornado force winds destroy buildings,
because the power of the wind grows exponentially with increased velocity.
The new gravity powered aircraft will have wind velocities into the
hundreds of miles per hour striking its wind turbines as it rapidly
descends from great heights by gravity acceleration and a very large
quantity of energy may be generated by the wind turbines for extended
periods of time as individual glides may last for several hours.
Considerations And Air Travel Concerns
Due to the aircraft’s ability to alter its lift
via aerostatic lift at any time, it is capable of floating in the
air whenever it is desirable to do so. This natural floating capability
prevents “falling out of the sky” as conventional airplanes
do when jet engine power is lost, which vastly increases the safety
of Hunt Aviation’s hybrid aircraft..
Fuel-less flight also brings a far greater
degree of safety because there is no jet fuel to spill and burn.
The combustion of aircraft fuel is the major cause of loss of life
in the crash of a conventional airplane.
After 9/11 many people are very concerned
over air travel, fearing that airplanes filled with explosive aviation
fuel may become lethal weapons. This has greatly reduced air
travel and tourism. The new hybrid aircraft does not carry explosive
fuel and it is believed that passengers will feel much safer flying
in an aircraft that has no explosive or combustible fuel.
And Weight Of Aviation Fuel
The rising cost of aviation fuel is the greatest, uncontrollable
expense that airlines face. It is obvious that the “innovation
of fuel-less flight” is a major achievement in aviation, but
it is also a major economic accomplishment. Also, liquid aviation
fuel is very heavy, which is an advantage that Hunt’s aircraft
does not have to carry a substantial load of fuel into the sky.
Environmental Impact Of The Wind-Powered Airship
There are no emissions from the aircraft to create greenhouse
gases that can cause global warming as is produced by convention aircraft
using combustion jet turbines, nor does the airship harm the ozone
layer as is done by conventional supersonic flight. The environment
will be greatly enhanced and protected by the invention of this aircraft
that accomplishes flight via harnessing the gravitational pull of
the earth to provide a silent gliding style of flight that does not
generate loud sounds, as do jet engine powered aircraft.
Of The New Hybrid Aircraft
The major advantages of the gravityplane are:
- does not require fuel, which accounts for over
eighty percent (80%) of the operating cost of conventional air travel;
- does not have to lift the weight of fuel during
take-off or flight; and,
- makes energy instead of using energy via harnessing
gravity by use of the wind turbine; and,
- has the capability to take-off and landing vertically,
which is a significant advantage over conventional airplanes; and
- can deliver people and products directly to the
- does not necessarily need an airport; and,
- has very heavy lifting capabilities on the order
of a ship when built to very large size; and,
- is safer because there is no fuel to explode and
- is safer because it can gain neutral buoyancy
at any time and float in the air, which can prevent a crash landing;
- is safer because of use of a dual-aerostatic-lift
system that will include the use of vacuum-lift and the use of a
lifting gas as a safety feature; and,
- is safer because it is less likely to encounter
terrorist activities because there is no fuel to make it a flying
- is environmentally friendly because there are
no greenhouse gas emissions; and,
- is environmentally friendly because there is not
harm the ozone layer; and,
- is environmentally friendly because there is no
noise pollution; and,
- potentially can fly within the stratosphere where
the air is thinner so there is less resistance.